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M.Sc. Computer Science Class Notes of Subject Computer Fundamental & Programming in C



Unit 1st


Computer Fundamentals: Concept of data and information; Components of Computer:

Hardware Input Device, Output Device. CPU: Components of CPU; Memory and Storage

Devices; Computer Software: System Software and Application Software; Functions of

Operating System. Programming

Languages: Machine, Assembly, High Level Language, 4GL; Language Translator; Linker,

Loader; Classification of Computers: Micro, Mini, Mainframe, Super computer. Advantages of

Computer, Limitations of Computer, Range of Applications of Computer, Social concerns of

Computer Technology: Positive and Negative Impacts, Computer Crimes, Viruses and their

remedial solutions.


Notes of 1st Unit :-


Computer: Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the

user and processes these data under the control of set of instructions (called program) and gives

the result (output) and saves output for the future use. It can process both numerical and non-

numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations.



Components of Computer: A computer is made up of multiple parts that facilitate user

functionality. Parts have two primary categories:

Hardware: Physical structure that houses a computer's processor, memory, storage,

communication ports and peripheral devices

Software: The instructions and data are called software. It Includes operating system

(OS) and software applications

Hardware: In a computer System the actual machinery - wires, transistors and circuits is

called hardware. The basic components of a modern digital computer are: Input Device, Output

Device, Central Processor Unit (CPU), mass storage device and memory.


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